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Culligan of Hannibal, Missouri
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FAQs about drinking water water systems

Can I hook it up to my ice maker?
Is the water really as good as bottled?
Does the system require any maintenance or service?
What is reverse osmosis?
What is an RO system?
What factors effect an RO system?
How does an RO system know when to produce water?
What does a typical RO take out of water?


Can I hook it up to my ice maker?

Yes—in most case we can connect directly to your refrigerator. Connecting the system will extend the life of your ice maker and make clearer, great tasting ice. You can turn your fridge into a Culligan "Water and Ice Machine".

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Is the water really as good as bottled?

Yes—The system uses multiple processes including Reverse Osmosis to make great tasting, low sodium drinking water. Reverse Osmosis removes about 97% of the TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) from most tap water. Read the labels on bottled water and you will discover Reverse Osmosis is the same process used by most bottlers—so in effect—you really are getting "bottled water without the bottle"!

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Does the system require any maintenance or service?

Yes—We recommend annual service approximately. Our service technician will test your water each time, replace necessary filters and sanitize the system.

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What is reverse osmosis?

Reverse osmosis, also known as hyperfiltration, is the finest filtration known. This process will allow the removal of particles as small as dissolved individual ions from a solution. Reverse osmosis is used to purify water and remove ions and dissolved organic molecules. It can be used to purify fluids such as ethanol and glycol, which will pass through the reverse osmosis membrane, while rejecting other ions and contaminants from passing. The most common use for reverse osmosis is in purifying water. It is used to produce water that meets the most demanding specifications that are currently in place.

Reverse osmosis uses a membrane that is semi-permeable, allowing the fluid that is being purified to pass through it, while rejecting the contaminants that remain. Most reverse osmosis technology uses a process known as crossflow to allow the membrane to continually clean itself. As some of the fluid passes through the membrane the rest continues downstream, sweeping the rejected species away from the membrane, in a concentrated brine reject water. The process of reverse osmosis requires a driving force to push the fluid through the membrane, and the most common force is pressure from a pump. The higher the pressure, the larger the driving force. As the concentration of the fluid being rejected increases, the driving force required to continue concentrating the fluid increases.

Reverse osmosis is capable of rejecting bacteria, salts, sugars, proteins, particles, dyes, and other constituents that have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 daltons. The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. This means that dissolved ions that carry a charge, such as salts, are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged, such as organics. The larger the charge and the larger the particle, the more likely it will be rejected.

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What is an RO system?

A typical system consists of:


One or more pre-filters to remove silt, iron, chlorine or other particulate matter.

A membrane to remove raw water contaminates.

A pressure sensitive hydraulic on/off pressure valve to send pre-filtered water to the membrane to make treated water for storage.

A small storage tank for treated water.

May include a post-filter to polish stored water and to maximize its taste just prior to consumption.

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What factors affect an RO system?

Permeate flux and salt rejection are the key performance parameters of the reverse osmosis process. They are mainly influenced by variable parameters such as; pressure, temperature, recovery, and feed water salt concentration.

Water Pressure—Increased feed water pressure will increase permeate flux and decrease the permeate TDS. With excessive pressure the membrane may become deformed or compacted and a decrease in product flow will result.

Temperature—Increased temperature will increase permeate flux, which increases salt passage. It is also important to note that every unit is rated for a product flow temperature of 77F (25C). With a temperature decrease, the product flow will decrease. On average the membranes lose about 2% production for every degree below 77F.

Recovery—The recovery is the ratio of the permeate flow to the feed flow. When recovery is increased, the permeate flux will decrease and the salt passage will increase.

Feed water Concentration—Increased TDS or salt concentrations will decrease permeate flux and increase salt passage. This can also lead to surface coating or fouling by the salt.

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How does an RO system know when to produce water?

A standard RO System has a hydraulic on/off pressure valve which is controlled by source water pressure to send pre-filtered water to the membrane to make water for storage.

When water pressure in the storage tank builds up to 90% of the incoming line pressure, the standard hydraulic on/off pressure valve shuts off the flow of water to the system, stopping treated water production. When you open the RO faucet, system pressure drops as treated water exits the tank. The standard hydraulic on/off pressure valve turns on when the tank pressure is less than the source water pressure and treated water is produced through the RO system. The cycle repeats itself.

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What does a typical RO take out of water?

Chemicals Reduces by Other Contaminants Reduces by
THMs (chloroform) 95% barium 97%
benzene 83% bicarbonate 94%
carbon tetrachloride 87% cadmium 97%
p-dichlorobenzene 93% calcium 97%
TCE (trichloroethylene) 98% chromate 92%
1, 1-dichloroethylene 86% copper 97%
1, 1, 1-trichloroethane 93% detergents 97%
1, 2-dichloropropene 95% fluoride 90%
cis-1,3-dichloropropene 95% lead 97%
chlorobenzene 95% magnesium 97%
ethylbenzene 95% nickel 97%
hexachlorobutadiene 95% nitrates 80%
ortho-xylene 95% total dissolved solids 95%
PCE (tetrachloroethylene 95% potassium 92%
toluene 95% radium 97%
trans-1, 2-dichloroethene 95% selenium 97%
1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethane 95% silicate 96%
1, 2-dichlorobenzene 95% silver 85%
1, 2-dichloropropane 95% sodium 92%
1, 1-dichloroethane 95% strontium 97%
chlorine 99% sulfate 97%
EDB 99% PCB's 97%
DBCP 99% insecticides 97%
Atrazine 97% herbicides 97%

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Culligan of Hannibal    9675 Highway 168 | Hannibal, MO 63401 | (573) 221-1426
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